SCANZ 2013: A groundwater resources portal for New Zealand

Authors: Alex Kmoch, Sheena Mannering-Tawera, Diane Bradshaw, Paul White and Hermann Klug


New Zealand’s freshwater resources are extremely valuable but at the same time barely understood. Most of the surface waters are already allocated and groundwater resources are more and more demanded by society. With 80% of the presently allocated groundwater resources, agricultural business is demanding a share of already allocated water (White, 2006). However, New Zealand’s groundwater resource properties, like storage capacities or groundwater recharge are not well known. This might cause unsatisfactory and unsustainable developments. The regional councils in New Zealand are responsible for freshwater management, working under a common national legal framework, the management of water quality, water consents and water quantity measurement is a regional responsibility and so is data collection and storage.

Iwi/Māori have a well-recognised relationship with the natural environment which spans many centuries and is the result of interaction and adaptation with native flora and fauna of Aotearoa/New Zealand. Integral to this relationship is water which sustains life and is a taonga (treasure) with significant cultural and physical dimension. This is reflected through the on-going desire of many iwi/Māori groups to have a role in the way water is managed in New Zealand to ensure its sustainable utilisation moving forward (Kawharu, 2002). The development of scientific research tools and models that incorporate mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and te reo Māori (the Māori language) are also beneficial to iwi/Māori resource policymakers, planners and decision makers.

GNS (Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences) has been collecting and compiling Māori terms on hydrology, geology and geothermal phenomena to, amongst other things, explore the contribution that traditional indigenous knowledge can make to the research outcomes and model development by identifying the cultural significance of groundwater and the associated cultural links with surface water (Tipa and Tierney, 2003, Boast, 1991). The potential benefits of creating research tools that utilise te reo Maori and mātauranga Māori (within government institutional settings) includes generating increased uptake in and familiarity with te reo Māori and exposure of te reo Māori as a minority language to broader audiences. Further research could identify gaps in the dual knowledge systems (either the western scientific knowledge paradigm, or mātauranga Māori) that could be explored as an outcome of this combined research (De Bres, 2008).

In order to provide a seamless spatial and multi-purpose view of collected groundwater related datasets, the SMART project joins forces to establish a valuable basis for groundwater analysis and decision support tools (Kmoch et al., 2012, Klug et al., 2011). One of the project’s objectives is to build a web-based data and knowledge portal and attached three-dimensional web visualisation tool according to OGC and ISO compliant standards (OGC, 2012).

To support te reo Māori and mātauranga Māori within the SMART portal web mapping and catalogue application, we evaluate a multi-language concept to incorporate semantic web methodologies to map and connect English and Māori terms and descriptions of presented natural phenomena as well as metadata and descriptive text within the application (Lutz et al., 2009). Beside a language template system for in-application-navigation use, a vocabulary web service based on a RDF/SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System) database and an OGC CSW Catalogue server will be implemented to express structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, metadata and other types of controlled vocabulary. RDF/SKOS will be used to document, link and merge concepts/terms to be with other spatial and non-spatial data (Antoine Isaac and Ed Summers, 2008). Evaluation of the lexicon’s effectiveness will be measured in part by its ability to be applied successfully to the SMART portal web mapping and cataloguing application.

SCANZ 2013: The substance of experience

Authors: Kura Puke and Stuart Foster


Within the Turkish landscape, the elevated minarets or ‘light houses’ provide a visual focal point and a spatial trajectory through aural extensions created by the cyclical call of the adhan. A revered kaumatua, who attended ISEA2011 in Istanbul, spoke of his experience of this ancient and entrenched practice as “stirring” and “touching the soul”

This effect may be similar to the customary Maori call ‘karanga’ with its two-fold function; to communicate audibly across a physical distance, and, a spiritual call that engages the wairua . For the participants, this call may ignite ‘te puna roimata’ or ‘the wellspring of tears’ as this aural invocation petitions, beyond time and space, to the ancestors and ultimately to the source of life itself.

These allegories to the metaphysical, may be best communicated in visual-aural modes, where content is transmitted through media interconnectivity and received through wide ranging perceptions and understandings. In prompting metaphysical notions or discourse, these visuals participate in envisioning change.

The collaborative project titled ‘Tipi Rangi: Traversing the heavens’ is a sound-carrying laser light, where the relay of beams transport ancient vocal expression and audible environmental sounds, in a visual trajectory through the landscape.

Creative crossovers in science, technology, art and indigenous worldviews create new knowledge, towards integrated understandings of our contemporary ecological situation. These insights are crucial to cultivating meaningful, sustainable environmental wellbeing.

This project explores the potential toward deeper understanding of matter through electronics, forging dynamic relationships and producing captivating images, audio and performative expression. These motivations set the stage for transdisciplinary learning and communication to take place.

In the research of light, sound and other energies, exploration and discovery through technology allows the invisible to be made visible and the intangible, tangible. These are the realms of science and art, understandings of measuring and expressing narratives of these energies. Maori knowledge or matauranga has identified, interlinked and organized these phenomena within a complex but inclusive genealogical framework. The implication is, that every individual is connected to each other, to all things, and to nature itself, therefore the environment must be treated accordingly.

Notions of the metaphysical are fundamental to an indigenous view, and increasingly re-occurring in a western view, as scientific information cannot deliver these understandings but a convergence offers new knowledge pathways.

The continuation of karanga as a post colonial re-balancing of cultural identity for the collective and specifically women is a critical element in the dynamic contribution to matauranga Maori. In an increasingly younger, indigenous demographic, creating relevant meaningful visual culture is an imperative. Karanga sent forth through light, transmitting the voice as vibration can assert cultural value, identity and technology. The outcomes may be useful to those communities as inclusive learning opportunities and a tool for expressing mana

In the emerging global culture, creative products can travel, further innovating and creating new knowledge formed through both the weight of scientific data and the substance of experience.

Week one residency

This schedule has been placed online for discussion. The plan is below. It is possible it has to change.
Fri 18 Jan Day 01 Parihaka
10am Representative group arrives at Parihaka
2pm Depart Parihaka
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open (most residency artists arrive)
8.30pm “Niko Ne Zna” Balkan Gypsy brass extravaganza
Sat 19 Jan Day 02 Parihaka
10am All: Arrive at Parihaka
2pm Depart Parihaka
3pm Whakawhanaungatanga at WITT
8pm Ash & Aidan; Shaun Preston
Sun 20 Jan Day 01 Residency
10am All: Welcome at F Block studios
Town orientation tour – electronics, hardware, galleries, park
Housekeeping and dinners schedule
Afternoon free
2pm, 8pm, 10pm; 8.30pm Tamashi Taiko Drummers; Sam Manzana and the Afro Beat Band
Mon 21 Jan Day 02 Residency
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open
10am All: Group meeting, F block art studios
Housekeeping, questions
Contextual discussion
Today’s theme: Low cost electronics, programming LED with picaxe
Guest: Andrew Hornblow
12noon Lunch
1pm Open time, project work etc
4.30pm Dinner team gather
6pm, 7pm? Dinner
8pm, 8.30pm Country music night
Tue 22 Jan Day 03 Residency
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open
10am All: Group meeting, F block art studios
Housekeeping, questions
Contextual discussion
Today’s theme: Raranga (weaving)
Guest: TBC
12noon Lunch
1pm Open time, project work etc
4.30pm Dinner team gather
7pm Dinner
7.45pm; 9pm Dave Ritchie Smith; Andy Bassett and the Mondegreens
Wed 23 Jan Day 04 Residency
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open
10am All: Group meeting, F block art studios
Housekeeping, questions
Contextual discussion
Today’s theme: Eco activism and Waitara waterways
Guests Fiona Clark, Margaret Smith
12noon Lunch
1pm Open time, project work etc
4.00pm Dinner team gather
6pm Dinner
8pm City of New Plymouth Caledonian Pipe Band
Thur 24 Jan Day 05 Residency
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open
10am All: Group meeting, F block art studios
Housekeeping, questions
Contextual discussion
Today’s theme: Geolocating science, art and Maori knowledge
Guest Elise Smith
12noon Lunch
1pm Open time, project work etc
4.30pm Dinner team gather
7pm Dinner
7pm The Spice Boys; Titanium; Highly Flammable
Fri 25 Jan Day 06 Residency
9-4.30pm SCANZ admin open
10am All: Group meeting, F block art studios
Housekeeping, questions
Activities as required
Open time, project work e
Go to week two of residency


Travel information

Photo: Historic Owae Marae, site of day one of the hui symposium

SCANZ 2013 3rd nature

developing the culture to create a sustainable civilisation


3rd nature involves creativity and innovation at the intersection of three critical interfaces:

*Acknowledging the environmental crisis
*Engaging with Maori and indigenous peoples
*Engaging with Sciences and the Hybrid Arts

These three intersecting dialogues provide space for a Third Nature, a fresh space for engaging with new knowledge and approaches vital to a sustainable civilisation.

Important dates

Residency dates: Arrive Friday 18 January 2013

We are asking residents to arrive in New Plymouth by Friday 18th January. This is to allow us to leave early on the 19th, for Parihaka. This marae was the location of an important passage of peaceful resistance led by Te Whiti and Tohu, leaders of the Parihaka community in the colonial period.

We are happy for people to arrive earlier. Some of the organisation team will go to Parihaka on the 18th, in accordance with protocol. The 18th of each month is a day in honour of Te Whiti and the 19th of each month is in honour of Tohu.

Flights to New Plymouth

There are only four or five flights per day to New Plymouth. If you land in the international terminal at Auckland you then need to take the free bus to the domestic terminal, or you can walk following a green line, which takes about ten minutes. Wellington also has a separate international terminal – I haven’t used it but imagine all processes are similar.

Air New Zealand is the only airline servicing New Plymouth (Nga Motu). Locate the Air New Zealand check in kiosks. Checking in is done by you at the kiosks, and there are staff to assist. You then drop your bags on to the conveyor (again someone assists). At Auckland Airport you then need to go to the regional airlines waiting area. Don’t be surprised to see large flight boards with no mention of New Plymouth flights. These are located in the area for departures and arrivals for the main centres.

The regional airlines departure area in Auckland is at the left end of the domestic terminal when standing outside and facing toward the doors. When your flight boards, you’ll walk quite a way to get to the plane, and the plane is quite small.

When your flights are arranged, please give the arrival and departure information to Thilani Nissanga. Thilani is our administrator. In the lead up to SCANZ she will be looking after arrival, departure and accommodation information. During SCANZ she will be staffing an admin office for queries, mainly during normal business hours, 9-4.30.

Car to New Plymouth

It takes around 5 hours to drive to New Plymouth, either from Auckland or Wellington. It depends on how long the breaks in the journey are and also how heavy traffic is. Some cars will no doubt be driving from Auckland around the 18th. For car pooling queries please contact Thilani. For those arriving internationally, we recommend the flight to New Plymouth. If you would like to go by car, we probably need to add an overnight stay (it is very tricky to arrange an incoming international flight arrival with a pick up in time to get to New Plymouth on the 18th), which means you would need to arrive at least a day earlier.

Residency dates: Check out Monday February 4th 2013

One of the reasons we say to check out Monday 4th February is that there are no late flights on Sunday night from New Plymouth. The last flight is around 7.15, so rather than rushing around on the final afternoon, it is simpler to leave the following day, checking out in the morning.

Symposium dates: February 1-3 2013

Arrive on January 31 2013

Day one of the hui symposium is at Owae Marae. We will be leaving early on Friday February 1st for the marae as there will be a powhiri when we get there. There is not really time to fly to New Plymouth and make it for the start of the powhiri. Anyone driving would need to leave Auckland or Wellington at 3.30am to make it for the powhiri.

Powhiri is the protocol of welcoming visitors onto a marae. The marae consists of a Whare Nui (Meeting House) and a Whare Kai (Eating House) plus a number of other buildings.

We will be called on to the marae, by women  (wahine), one calling for the locals (tangata whenua), one for the visitors (manuhiri). At the threshold of the Whare Nui, there will be a hongi for some (pressed nose greeting where the breath is shared). Once inside, several people will speak – some for the tangata whenua, some for the manuhiri. After each speech, there is a song. The formal ceremony is concluded and then all are welcome to speak, in particular any women who may like to speak.

Owae Marae is progressive in that it is Ok for women to speak. Traditionally, women did not take part in this aspect of proceedings. So please take up this opportunity if you get the feeling to.

Presentations for day one should be those that do not require internet access, as we have had problems in the past with reliability. A projector will be available.

Exhibition opening: Dawn February 2 2013

Day two of the symposium starts with the dawn opening of the exhibition at Puke Ariki. We will have two vans to take people to the opening. Such openings are rare, even in Aotearoa New Zealand so everyone is encouraged to attend. We will have an extended mid morning break so everyone can freshen up.

The remainder of the day is at WITT.

The following day, Sunday starts at WITT and proceeds to Pukekura Park.

Depart on Monday 4th February preferred

While not strictly necessary, we encourage hui symposium attendees to leave on Monday. This allows some ‘slow down time’ after the events of the previous few days. It is also our intention, that those putting forward papers, are able to have their paper impacted by attendance at the hui. Consequently scheduling reflective time is advised. Making a few notes at the time makes paper editing and development that much quicker.

That said, it would be possible to leave by car around 4.30pm on Sunday and arrive in Auckland or Wellington around 9.30pm. Similarly flights from New Plymouth airport could be booked.


Wai dawn opening

Wai will open at dawn, 6.53am September 19th 2012 at 516 Arts, 516 Central Ave SW Albuquerque,  led by Dr Te Huirangi Waikerepuru, as part of ISEA 2012 Albuquerque Machine Wilderness. All welcome.


There will also be a special session of ISEA, at OFFCENTER in Albuquerque from 12 to 1.45pm on Sunday23rd September. All welcome to that event too.


Later that same day, the 23rd, from 4pm till 9pm, the third project for ISEA 2012 Machine Wilderness Bus garden will be presented as part of the Block Party on Central Ave.




Residency Proposal: Korou Dance



Korou Productions is currently in the first phase of research and consultation for Ūkaipo – A new dance opera in Te Reo Māori.  SCANZ 2013 will be an welcome opportunity for the Ūkaipo kaupapa to connect with mana whenua and tangata whenua of the Taranaki rohe and attending interdisciplinary artists and scientists.

Ūkaipō Celebrates the divine feminine, the mother nurturer; mother nature.

In exaltation of the natural realms of Papatūānuku and Ranginui where earth meets sea and sky, we honour the sacredness of water, our relationship to the South Pacific, distant homelands of Hawaiki and new horizons. Cloaked in a korowai of sacred forest we re-connect to ancient consciousness in a new form.

Toitū te whenua, whatungarongaro te tangata.  Papatūānuku calls for tremendous healing.  Mankind continues to use the provisions of Papatūānuku in excessive amounts. People live and die, disappear, but land remains, what state are we, the current generations leaving our lands for future generations?

Ūkaipō Births a new art form, merging the traditional vocal genre of classical and Avant-Garde Opera, in Te Reo Māori with contemporary Māori dance theatre.  Envisaging the earthy creation of Rangi Mareikura: Heaven of the adorned sweet voiced singers.  Ūkaipō moves toward creating a celestial experience to affirm our physical, spiritual and intellectual interconnectivity with our intact but remnant environment.

Ūkaipō Will work within Māori and Tauira communities that promote environmental care and wish to expand their stories and their messages of resilience, conservation and sustainability.

Ūkaipō Will engage with allied art forms and artists that desire to share in the holistic and conscious approach to this new work including fine artists, body painters and special effects, sculptors, creators of taonga, adornment makers, glass workers and multi-media and computer graphics design.

Ūkaipō Is to be the first of its kind specifically designed to actively encourage a dedicated team of professional artists to engage in a Dance Opera in te reo Māori, and through wānanga outreach to communities in Aotearoa – both Rural and Urban.

Ūkaipō Is currently in Phase One Research supported by Creative NZ Te Waka Toi Arts Grant 2011.

Residency Project: Cecelia Cmielewski

What is wind?
The art based research brings my thirty year history of cross cultural communications together in this project in concert with the cross fertilization facilitated through the WITT Art Space.

I will research exchanges of different knowledge systems – comparing and contrasting Maori and Indigenous environmental concepts with each other and western scientific ‘descriptors’. This first exploration will be kept very simple and look at an everyday experience by asking people “What is wind?”

The work would consist of interviews and data gathering (many of which I would complete in Australia before arriving in NZ) and ideally range between older experts and the younger generation. I intend to include some interviews taken during my visit to Northern India in October.

The outcome would combine photographic documentation (a portrait) with some text from the interviews and perhaps an illustration by the interviewee.

The topic that I am researching and producing is one that has yet to be well realised in a multi and cross cultural approach in Australia. The rich intersections between different cultures and their knowledge systems will expand the creative opportunities for those who participate and those who engage with the work. This project is the first phase to refine the methods and ways of presenting differing cultural perspectives on a seemingly simple question “what is wind?”

I will seek and obtain formal permissions from the participants prior to the research beginning which will add to the body of knowledge of ethical approaches in the arts.

The public are welcome to attend and much of the cross fertilisation will occur, in terms of projects and discussion. I will present an overview of my experience at a Friday seminar at SymbioticA, which is open to all Perth residents, and will contribute to the blog that is part of the SCANZ program. I will also present at the SCANZ symposium which will be published by Leonardo Journal.

The high level of international networking and collaboration, through working spaces and discussions, will produce opportunities that go beyond the time of the residency.

Residency Project: Josh Wodak

Image: >2 degrees before 2028, detail, photograph 45×65

My proposal for the residency is three-fold:

  1. – to participate in the Open Lab, in sharing perspectives and approaches to exploring environmental issues through interdisciplinary art+research
  2. – to participate in the low cost electronics workshop to build a rapid prototype of the LED light strip (described below)
  3. – to liaise with local community members and fellow participants to develop the following project, and to seek out potential participants for the project in New Zealand through SCANZ 2013.

‘Ocean Island’ is a series of staged video-portraits of 6 individuals from Tuvalu and Kiribati, now living in New Zealand in light of climate change effects on their islands of origin. Production would take place after SCANZ 2013, over two months, at locations determined by the participants.

The video-portraits symbolically depict futuristic sea level rise on today’s Pacific Islanders.

Each portrait is of a participant standing on shallow New Zealand sandbars with their body facing the camera, to appear to be figuratively ‘standing on water’, as they are filmed from the nearby shoreline with open ocean behind them. One arm is held outstretched, to symbolise the fable of King Canute holding back the rising tide. This stance and composition is illustrated in the photograph below.

A 3cm wide, 100cm long strip of 50 red LED lights is attached along their right arm, going from their fingertips to the their head. They stare at their fingertips for 2 minutes while the LEDs are lit up, from their fingertip and then increasing one-by-one to their head. This rising column of lights symbolises the sea level rising up their body, as per the sea level rise forecasted for the end of this century.

Staring at the fingertip while this symbolic flood height rises symbolises the cumulative passage of time and how each subject is metaphorically passing through the remaining 88 years of this century (represented by each successive LED light, like a growth ring on a tree or ‘lines of age’).

Speed and playback of each real-time 2 minute recording is manipulated to evoke the different ways sea level rise will occur if global temperatures increase more or less than 2 degrees by 2100. Each recording’s length will correspond to an equivalent temperature rise: e.g. Portrait A @1”45 seconds represents 1.75 degree increase, Portrait B @2”30 seconds represents 2.5 degree increase. Each video-portrait has a corresponding 2 channel sound collage of wind, rain, surf, thunder, hail and other weather phenomena (drawing on my practice in sound arts and classical training in music composition).

The video-portraits would be projected in vertical diptychs, with the left video projection showing a subject holding their right arm out and the right projection showing a subject holding their left arm out (like in photograph below). The exhibition would feature all 6 segments from 2 DVD players on a looping cycle, forming asynchronous relationships between neighbouring portraits, as their playback would shift in and out of phase with one another due to the slightly different length of each portrait.


Project proposal – Nigel Helyer

Nigel Helyer has been invited to develop an audio project utilising data sensors and Open Meshwork in Pukekura Park with a custom online data to audio translation. The system is permanently installed in New Plymouth’s botanic garden.

Currently, temperature, UV and people count data is collected. Other projects involve sensors monitoring tree voltage, the electromagnetic field, moisture and penguin data. Working out how to creatively utilise data is problematic and fruitful.

The system in Pukekura Park is the basis for a number of projects including Wai in Albuquerque for ISEA 2012. The Park Speaks established the system and was a collaboration involving Adrian Soundy, Andrew Hornblow, Julian Priest and Ian Clothier.


Balance-Unbalance: Arts + Science x Technology = Environment / Responsibility

Authors: Leah Barclay, Ricardo Dal Farra


We are living in a world reaching a critical point where the equilibrium between a healthy environment, the energy our society needs to maintain or improve this lifestyle and the interconnected economies could pass more quickly than expected from the current complex balance to a complete new reality where unbalance would be the rule and human beings would need to be as creative as never before to survive.

The arts could become a powerful tool of awareness and transformation in times of ecological threats, economic uncertainty and political complexity. Artists, scientists, economists, philosophers, politicians, sociologists, engineers, management and policy experts were sharing their knowledge, debating over different perspectives, exploring new projects and starting to build paths with the intent of engendering awareness and creating lasting intellectual working partnerships in solving our global environmental crisis during two conferences, one organized in Buenos Aires (2010) and the other in Montreal (2012). This panel explores outcomes and ideas from both conferences and introduces the framework for Balance-Unbalance 2013 (Future Nature, Future Culture[s]) hosted by Noosa Biosphere in Queensland, Australia.